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Damascus Document

What Is “Torah” in Second Temple Texts?

In the Second Temple Period, “Torah” was not limited to the Five Books of Moses. The book of Jubilees and the Temple Scroll saw themselves as “Torah,” while Qumran’s Community Rule and Damascus Document claim that their own sectarian rules likewise constituted Torah.


Molly M. Zahn



Shabbat with Food: From Biblical Prohibitions to Rabbinic Feasts

Biblical prohibitions against preparing food on Shabbat are further developed in the Second Temple and rabbinic periods. At the same time, a new emphasis emerges: celebrating Shabbat with festive meals.


Sarit Kattan Gribetz



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