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Egypt, Religion

Pharaoh Is a Monster: Ezekiel Decries Judah’s Ties with Egypt

Before the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem, Ezekiel condemns Judah's alliance with Egypt, depicting Egypt and its pharaoh as a monster that YHWH will destroy. The prophet accuses Judah of harlotry with Egypt and blames their foolish alliance on their resurgent worship of the Egyptian gods they adopted during their sojourn there.

Prof.

Safwat Marzouk

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Weighing Pharaoh’s Heavy Heart

According to ancient Egyptian belief, a person’s heart was weighed after death to determine whether they are righteous or wicked. By referring to Pharaoh’s heart as heavy, the exodus story originally expressed the extent of his guilt.

Rabbi

Daniel M. Zucker

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The Egyptian “Magicians”

Is the Bible’s portrayal of the magicians (Ḥarṭummīm) in accord with Egyptian literature and ritual practice? How did the Israelite writers obtain this knowledge?

Prof.

Scott B. Noegel

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The Tabernacle in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context

The parallels between the Tabernacle and ANE structures such as Rameses II’s military tent shed light on what the meaning and function of this ancient structure might have been.

Prof.

Michael M. Homan

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Nehushtan, the Copper Serpent: Its Origins and Fate

The Torah describes Moses building a copper serpent to heal the Israelites. According to Kings, Hezekiah destroys it because it was being worshiped. Archaeology and history clarify the religious and political meaning of this image.

Dr.

Richard Lederman

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YHWH's War Against the Egyptian Sun-God Ra

Reading the Plagues of Locust, Darkness, and Firstborn in their Ancient Egyptian Context

Prof.

Gary Rendsburg

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Our Mummified Patriarchs: Jacob and Joseph

Explaining the practice and theology behind mummification in Ancient Egypt.

Dr.

Rachel P. Kreiter

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Ḥeka: Understanding Egyptian Magic on Its Own Terms

The all pervading cosmic force. 

Dr.

Flora Brooke Anthony

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Pharaoh's Divine Role in Maintaining Ma'at (Order)

Prof.

Jan Assmann

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Ancient Egypt: An Overview of Its History

Prof.

Gary Rendsburg

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