Study the Torah with Academic Scholarship

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Are Torah Rituals Just Literary Compositions? A Comparison with Namburbis

Both namburbi anti-omen rituals (1st millennium B.C.E.) and priestly Torah rituals were preserved in collections in multiple versions that show evidence of intertextuality and innovation. Were these rituals meant to be performed?


William Morrow



Moses’ Apotropaic Intercession

Moses’ use of rhetoric to convince YHWH to undo his decree against Israel recasts a namburbu-like ritual intercession in a prophetic hue.


Marian Broida



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