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Pharaoh

Levantines in 15th and 14th Century Egyptian Art

Egyptian artists depicted their northern Levantine neighbors as prisoners or warriors being smitten, as dignitaries presenting tribute, and even as slaves working on royal building projects. This gives us a glimpse of what Levantines looked like in this period from an Egyptian perspective, including, perhaps, those who later identified as Israelites.

Dr.

Flora Brooke Anthony

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Why the Joseph Story Portrays Egypt Positively

In the Joseph story, the Egyptian officials, including Pharaoh, are kind and wise. Joseph himself  shaves his beard, puts on Egyptian clothes, takes an Egyptian name, and marries the daughter of an Egyptian priest. Nothing in the text implies that the author thinks any of this is problematic.

Prof.

Susan Niditch

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The Ethical Problem of Hardening Pharaoh's Heart

It seems unethical for God to deny Pharaoh free will and then punish him for his actions. Rashi, Nahmanides, and Maimonides all struggle with this problem, and each assumes that even Pharaoh deserves to be treated fairly.[1]

Prof. Rabbi

Shaul Magid

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The Death of Pharaoh's Firstborn: A One Plague Exodus

After commissioning Moses at the burning bush, God commissions Moses again in Midian, and then again on his way to Egypt. In this third commission, God instructs Moses to tell Pharaoh, “Let My son go, that he may worship Me, yet you refuse to let him go. Now I will slay your firstborn son” (Exod 4:22-23). How does this narrative fit into the exodus story?

Dr. Rabbi

David Frankel

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The Pharaoh of the Exodus – Rameses III

Prof.

Gary Rendsburg

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When Pharaoh's Stubbornness Caught God by Surprise

A Supplementary Approach to the Theological Conundrum of Pharaoh’s Heavy Heart

Dr. Rabbi

David Frankel

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The Title “Pharaoh”

The change in usage over time and what this tells us about the biblical text

Dr.

Shirly Ben-Dor Evian

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Pharaoh's Divine Role in Maintaining Ma'at (Order)

Prof.

Jan Assmann

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Pharaoh's Mudbrick Palace

The structures, the thrones, and the artwork.

Dr.

Rachel P. Kreiter

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Why Pharaoh Went to the Nile

Privy to Midrash and Egyptian Ritual Practice

Prof.

Scott B. Noegel

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Taking Control of the Story: God Hardens Pharaoh's Heart

Exodus narrates three distinct conceptions of God’s relationship to Pharaoh’s stubbornness: God was surprised, God knew beforehand, and God was the direct cause. This essay focuses on the development of the final conception in the Priestly redaction of the Torah, and how and why the Priestly authors did not leave the destiny of the plagues to Pharaoh’s own heart.

Dr. Rabbi

David Frankel

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