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Hyksos

Levantines in 15th and 14th Century Egyptian Art

Egyptian artists depicted their northern Levantine neighbors as prisoners or warriors being smitten, as dignitaries presenting tribute, and even as slaves working on royal building projects. This gives us a glimpse of what Levantines looked like in this period from an Egyptian perspective, including, perhaps, those who later identified as Israelites.

Dr.

Flora Brooke Anthony

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Exodus: The History Behind the Story

The Elephantine Stele and the Great Harris Papyrus both describe Pharaoh Setnakhte’s war against the Levantine usurper Irsu in 1186 B.C.E. Reading these accounts together with Manetho’s story of the war against Osarseph offers us a possible historical context for what eventually became the Bible’s story of the exodus of Israel from Egypt.

Prof.

Israel Knohl

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The Israelites Are Not the Hyksos!

The hidden polemic in the Torah’s note that “Israel did not escape by way of the Philistine coastal route”

Dr.

David Ben-Gad HaCohen

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What We Know about the Egyptian Places Mentioned in Exodus

Egyptian records and archaeological findings shed light on the toponyms (place names) that appear in the exodus account: Ramesses, Pithom, Pi-Hahiroth, Baal-Zephon, Migdol, Sukkot, and Yam Suf.

Dr.

David A. Falk

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Ancient Egypt: An Overview of Its History

Prof.

Gary Rendsburg

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How Many Years Were the Israelites in Egypt?

Divergent Biblical Perspectives: Exodus 12:40 declares that the Israelites were in Egypt for 430 years. Other biblical contexts suggest a much shorter sojourn in Egypt.

Dr.

David Glatt-Gilad

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