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Urim and Tummim

The Priestly Garments: Recreating Them Just from the Text?

The medieval commentators, most famously Rashi, tried to describe the ephod and the choshen by reconciling the various biblical accounts. Azariah dei Rossi (ca. 1511–ca. 1578) argues that such efforts are futile; only eyewitness reports are helpful.


Hanna Liss



Can a False Prophet Perform Miracles?

According to Deuteronomy, a false prophet who has no message from God, and advocates worshiping other gods, can still successfully perform miracles and predict the future.

Prof. Rabbi

Marty Lockshin



Ancient Israelite Divination: Urim ve-Tummim, Ephod, and Prophecy

In the Prophets, Israelite leaders such as Joshua, Saul, David, and Ahab use divination to help them make decisions, just as their ancient Near Eastern counterparts did. The Torah sidesteps the divinatory character of these objects and practices, and instead, emphasizes their ritual and religious character.


Jonathan Stökl



The Urim VeTumim

The Urim veTumim have baffled traditional commentators through the ages and only more recently has modern scholarship shed partial light on what they were.

Yoel S.



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