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Yehezkel Kaufmann

Masking Revenge as Self-Defense: Domesticating the Book of Esther

Was the 13th of Adar a day when the Jews successfully defended themselves against their enemies, or was it a day when they could take vengeance against their enemies? Does Mordechai’s edict offset Haman’s edict or replace it?

Prof. Rabbi

David Frankel



Was the Documentary Hypothesis Tainted by Wellhausen’s Antisemitism?

Julius Wellhausen’s analysis of the Torah is perfused with the anti-Jewish sentiment prevalent in Bismarck’s Second German Reich. This adversely affected the use of the Documentary Hypothesis among Jewish scholars until Yehezkel’s Kaufmann’s introduction of a Jewish variation on the theory.


Alan T. Levenson



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