The tale of the heroic midwives in Exodus 1:15 records how they risked their lives to save male Hebrew babies despite the charge given them by Pharaoh. Who are these midwives? If they are Israelites, why would Pharaoh trust them with such a task and not suspect their loyalty to their own people? If they are Egyptian, why would they betray their ruler and risk their lives? A text discovered at the Cairo Genizah sheds new light on this exegetical conundrum.