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Naphtali Meshel

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2018

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Which Sacrificial Offerings Require Libations?

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Naphtali Meshel

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Which Sacrificial Offerings Require Libations?

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TheTorah.com

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2018

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https://thetorah.com/article/which-sacrificial-offerings-require-libations

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Which Sacrificial Offerings Require Libations?

A burnt offering (olah), described as “sweet smelling” food for YHWH, always includes grain and wine libation “side-dishes,” constituting a complete meal. A purification offering (chattat), however, is a cleansing ritual. Should it also have an accompanying libation? The Masoretic Text of Numbers 28-29 offers an inconsistent answer that differs from that of the Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch.

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Which Sacrificial Offerings Require Libations?

Moses, Aaron and his sons sacrificing an Olah. Abraham de Blois, after Gerard Hoet, 1720-1728. Rijksmuseum

YHWH’s Dwelling among the Israelites

Exodus 25 begins a long set of instructions that focuses on the construction of the Tabernacle (משכן), a portable shrine. YHWH makes the point of the structure clear at the beginning:

שמות כה:ח וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם.
Exod 25:8 And let them make Me a sanctuary that I may dwell among them.

The Tabernacle functions much like an extended-stay residence, where YHWH dwells as long as conditions are satisfactory.[1] The dwelling contains all the necessary furnishings:

  • ארון – The ark inside the inner chamber, with its cover and cherubim, provides a seat for the deity;
  • פרכת – A veil between the inner and outer chambers provides privacy;
  • מזבח הקטרת – The golden incense altar serves as an air-freshener;
  • מנורה – The seven-branched candelabra functions as a nightlight;
  • שלחן – A small table with twelve loaves of bread serves as a snack-bar.

The Daily Meal – Olah (Burnt-Offering)

The Tabernacle even has uniformed maintenance staff—priests—with the responsibility to provide regular meals in the form of the daily olah (עולה, burnt-offerings) served outside, in the courtyard, upon the bronze altar:

במדבר כח:ב …אֶת קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ.
Num 28:2 … Be punctilious in presenting to me at stated times the offerings of food due me, as sweet-smelling gifts to me.

The meal is to be offered twice a day and its main course is meat:

במדבר כח:ג …זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַי-הוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד. כח:ד אֶת הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם.
Num 28:3 …These are the gift offerings that you are to present to YHWH: As a regular burnt offering every day, two lambs in their first year without blemish. 28:4 You shall offer one lamb in the morning, and the other lamb you shall offer at twilight.

The Combo-Meal

But YHWH’s daily meals do not consist of meat only. In fact, in the Priestly sacrificial system, an animal is rarely offered in isolation. Thus, YHWH continues by describing what else the meal should include:

מִנְחָה (“grain offering”)[2]

במדבר כח:ה וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין.
Num 28:5 And as a grain offering, there shall be a tenth of an ephah of choice flour with a quarter of ahin of beaten oil mixed in.[3]

נֶסֶךְ (“libation”)

במדבר כח:ז וְנִסְכּוֹ רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַי-הוָה.
Num 28:7 The libation with it shall be a quarter of ahin for each lamb, to be poured in the sacred precinct as an offering of fermented drink to YHWH.[4]

Offering an animal with accompanying non-animal materials, such as grain offerings and libations, is a kind of a “combo-meal,” as it were.[5] This combination is common in West Semitic sacrificial practice[6] and is couched in human realia: like the offerers themselves, the gods are assumed to desire a starch and an alcoholic beverage along with their meat.[7]

An analogy to fast-food menus suggests itself: a complete “combo-meal,” includes a burger, a soda, and fries (a starch prepared in oil and often salted)—or other combinations of food that together constitute a full meal.

A burger with fries and a soda is common—hence the typical adage, “Do you want fries with that?” A combination of only fries and a soda, however, is not licit: that is, while it is not illegal to order fries and a drink separately, they do not constitute a meal. This is reflected in the absence of such an option from most “combo” menus.

So too, note that the subordination of fries and sodas to burgers is one-way: ordering a drink does not typically evoke, “Do you want a burger with that?” Such is the nature of the combo-meals in the Priestly writings in the Pentateuch (henceforth, “P”).

The Festival Combo-Meals (Num 28-29)

The passages following the description of the daily olah list the special festival combo-meals, the key elements of which are a burnt offering or many burnt-offerings, with their accompanying grain offerings and libations. The burnt-offerings for each of these festivals is a combination of bulls, rams, and lambs. Each animal is accompanied by a grain offering made of choice flour (סלת) mixed with oil. The size of the accompanying offer for each animal sacrifice is based on the animal’s size: 310, 210, and 110 of an ephah respectively. The accompanying wine libation also works this way: 12, 13, and 14 of a hin respectively.[8] (See chart 2 in the appendix.)

Chattat (Purification Offering): Not A Meal

The priestly “uniformed staff” are also in charge of cleaning—a function distinct from feeding. Thus, the priests regularly use blood obtained from sacrificial animals—primarily the chattat (“sin” or “purification”)[9] offerings—as a “ritual detergent” (Jacob Milgrom’s term) for removing pollutants, ensuring that the sanctuary remains suitable for YHWH’s continued presence.

The classic example of this is the ritual for purifying the Tabernacle which takes place on Yom Kippur. After the high priest sacrifices his chattat bull:

ויקרא טז:יד וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים מִן הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ.
Lev 16:14 He shall take some of the blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his finger over the cover on the east side; and in front of the cover he shall sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times.

He then continues with the people’s chattat goat and purges the Shrine and then the Tabernacle of uncleanness:

ויקרא טז:טו וְשָׁחַט אֶת שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת דָּמוֹ אֶל מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת. טז:טז וְכִפֶּר עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל חַטֹּאתָם וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַשֹּׁכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָם.
Lev 16:15 He shall then slaughter the people’s chattat goat, bring its blood behind the curtain, and do with its blood as he has done with the blood of the bull: he shall sprinkle it over the cover and in front of the cover. 16:16 Thus he shall purge the Shrine of the uncleanness of the Israelites and their transgressions, whatever their sins; and he shall do the same for the Tent of Meeting, which abides with them in the midst of their uncleanness.

The text continues with his purging the altar of uncleanness (see also Exod 30:10), and finally purging himself and the people.[10] This is just one example of chattat offerings, which were brought for many reasons on multiple occasions, including festivals.

Whose Libations? The Problematic Text of Numbers 28-29

According to the festival list in Numbers 28-29, a billy-goat (שעיר) chattat is to be offered as an accompaniment to the burnt-offerings on every festival (except Shabbat). The festival chattat offerings do not come with a “side-order” of grain offering—this makes sense, since they do not constitute a standard meal. Many of them, however, come with a wine libation, but determining which ones do and why is complicated, as it is based on a subtle point of grammar [11]

After mentioning the chattat offering, the text circles back to say that it should be offered “in addition to the daily olah and its grain offering,” and then continues with one of three endings:

  1. וְנִסְכָּהּ “and its (f.) libation,” or: וּנְסָכֶיהָ “and its (f.) libations”[12] – referring to the daily burnt offering (olah is a feminine noun in Hebrew);
  2. וְנִסְכּוֹ “and its (m.) libation” – referring to the chattat billy goat (שעיר is a masculine noun in Hebrew);
  3. וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם “and their libations” – referring to both the olah and the chattat.

Here is a chart of the chattat-and-its/their-libation(s) ending for all the festivals in Numbers 28-29:

The Chattat, the Daily Olah and its/their Libations (MT)

*Shabbat (28:11) –no chattat

(——) עַל עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ.
(——) In addition to the regular burnt offering and its (f.) libation.

New Moon (28:15)

וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת לַי-הוָה עַל עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכּוֹ.
And there shall be one goat as a chattat to YHWH, to be offered in addition to the regular burnt offering, and its (m.) libation.[13]

Matzot – 15th – 21st of 1st month (28:22-24)

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat, to make expiation in your behalf,
מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַבֹּקֶר אֲשֶׁר לְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת אֵלֶּה. כָּאֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַיּוֹם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לֶחֶם אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַי-הוָה
You shall present these in addition to the morning portion of the regular burnt offering. You shall offer the like daily for seven days as food, a gift of pleasing odor to YHWH;
עַל עוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכּוֹ.
to be offered in addition to the regular burnt offering, and its (m.) libation.[14]

Bikkurim (28:30-31)

שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם. מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתוֹ תַּעֲשׂוּ תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם.
And there shall be one goat for expiation in your behalf. In addition to the regular burnt offering and its meal offering[15]you shall offer them — see that they are without blemish — and their libations.[16]

1st of 7th month (29:5-6)

וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם. מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַחֹדֶשׁ וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַי-הוָה.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat, to make expiation in your behalf — in addition to the burnt offering of the new moon with its meal offering and the regular burnt offering with its meal offering, and their libations as prescribed, as pleasing odor gifts to YHWH.[17]

Yom Kippur – 10th of the 7th month (29:11)

שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים וְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat, in addition to the chattat of expiation and the regular burnt offering with its meal offering, and their libations.[18]

Day 1 of festival: 15th of the 7th month (29:16)

וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libation.[19]

Day 2 of festival: 16th of the 7th month (29:19)

וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and their libations.

Day 3 of festival: 17th of the 7th month (29:22)

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libation.

Day 4 of festival: 18th of the 7th month (29:25)

וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libation.

Day 5 of festival: 19th of the 7th month (29:28)

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libation.

Day 6 of festival: 20th of the 7th month (29:31)

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וּנְסָכֶיהָ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libations.

Day 7 of festival: 21st of the 7th month (29:34)

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libation.

Shemini Atzeret – 22nd of the 7th month (29:38)

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ.
And there shall be one goat for a chattat— in addition to the regular burnt offering, its meal offering and its (f.) libation.

That the variation in pronominal possessive endings is meant to convey whether the chattat also receives a libation or not is supported by the juxtaposition of וּמִנְחָתָהּ, “and its grain offering” (singular), with וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם, “and their libations” (plural), in 29:6, 11, 19. This phrase clarifies that whereas only the olah is to receive a grain offering (thus the fem. sg. possessive pronoun), both the olah and the chattat are to receive libations (thus the plural possessive pronoun).[20]

Following this schematic in the MT yields:

  • New Moon,
  • All seven days of Matzot,
  • The first of the seventh month,
  • Yom Kippur,
  • The second day of the seven-day seventh month festival
  • The first day of the seven-day seventh month festival,[21]
  • Days three through seven of this same festival,
  • Shemini Atzeret.[22]

Is There Method to the Chattat’s Side-Dishes?

The text as it appears in the MT is highly unlikely, and its present form is very possibly the result of a complex text-history, which led to some combinations that were not intended by any of the authors or interpolators. The problem is readily apparent when comparing the MT to the LXX (the Septuagint) and SP (Samaritan Pentateuch), each of which has a more (but not perfectly) consistent system, though they are not identical to one another (see chart 1 in the appendix).

LXX – Starting from the day of Bikkurim (“first produce”) and on, with the exception of Yom Kippur, the LXX always reads “their grain offerings and their libations” (מנחתם ונסכיהם) i.e., both plural, implying that the chattat for these days had a full accompaniment of side-dishes. Why Yom Kippur is in the singular for both, and why Shabbat, New Moon, and Matzot are singular for libation and have no mention of grain offering, remains unclear.

SP – The SP has two systems: Shabbat, New Moon and Matzot have libations in double plural “their libations” (ונסכיהם), whereas from the Festival of the first of the seventh month and on, it reads “its grain offering and its libations,” (ומנחתה ונסכיה) a single plural, referring to the multiple libations for the daily offerings. The one exception is Bikkurim, which has “its grain offering and their libations” (ומנחתה ונסכיהם) i.e., combining the grain offering with a double plural. This would mean that the goat gets a libation only on the New Moon, Matzot, and Bikkurim, but not on the rest of the days.

Both LXX and SP have more consistent systems than MT, but it is very possible that neither is original and that they each reflect later attempts to “find method in the madness.” And even these attempts did not produce a fully consistent system.

Chattat Offerings Are Not Meals

Despite the lack of clarity, what stands out is that, unlike burnt offerings, chattat offerings do not have a consistent requirement to appear with full side-dish accompaniment. This is explained quite easily: The chattat offerings are not “sweet-smelling gifts of food to YHWH” (לחם אשה ריח ניחוח לי-הוה); they are instead part of a cleansing ritual, and thus, are not treated as meals.[23]

But why, then, are chattat offerings ever accompanied by libations? Considering this problem, the lack of any clear system in the MT, and the extreme inconsistency between the various extant versions of the Pentateuch (MT, SP, and LXX), it is worth considering the suggestion of the German Bible scholar Rolf Rendtorff (1925-2014) that the abbreviated references to the libations in Numbers 28–29 (ונסכה, ונסכו, ונסכיהם) are interpolations that were inserted unsystematically by later scribes.[24]

In other words, over time, editors worked to assimilate the chattat offering to the more typical sacrifices such as the olah, which were served with side-dishes. The most extreme example of this is in the LXX, according to which the chattat is even accompanied by a grain offering. Originally, however, only the olah in this chapter had accompanying libations, and the chattat offerings did not, since the olah was food for the deity, served as a sweet-smelling combo-meal, while the latter was part of cleaning house and did not require accompanying side-dishes.

Appendix

Chart 1 – The “Grain Offering and Libation Ending” in MT, SP, and LXX

Festival MT SP LXX
Shabbat (28:10) – no chattat וְנִסְכָּהּ ונסכיהם [25]ונסכה
and its (f.) libation and their libations and its (m./n.) libation καὶ τὴν σπονδὴν αὐτοῦ[26]
New Moon (28:15) וְנִסְכּוֹ ונסכיהם ונסכו
and its (m.) libation and their libations and its (m./n.) libation καὶ ἡ σπονδὴ αὐτοῦ
Matzot – 15th– 21st of 1st month (28:24) וְנִסְכּוֹ ונסכיהם ונסכו
and its (m.) libation and their libations its (m./n.) libation τὴν σπονδὴν αὐτοῦ
Bikkurim (28:31) וּמִנְחָתוֹ… וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם ומנחתה… ונסכיהם ומנחתם… ונסכיהם
and its (m.) grain offering… and their libations. and its (f.) grain offering… and their libations and their (grain)[27] offerings… and their libations[28] καὶ τὴν θυσίαν αὐτῶν… καὶ τὰς σπονδὰς αὐτῶν
1st of 7th month (29:6) וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם ומנחתה ונסכיה[29] ומנחתם ונסכיהם
and its (f.) grain offering and their libations and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations and their (grain) offerings and their libations καὶ αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Yom Kippur – 10th of the 7th month (29:11) וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם ומנחתה ונסכיה ומנחתה ונסכה
and its (f.) grain offering and their libations and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations its (f.) (grain) offering and its (f.) libation[30] ἡ θυσία αὐτῆς καὶ ἡ σπονδὴ αὐτῆς
Day 1 of festival: 15th of the 7th month (29:16) מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libation and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Day 2 of festival: 16th of the 7th month (29:19) וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
and its (f.) grain offering and their libations and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Day 3 of Festival: 17th of the 7th month (29:22) וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libation and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Day 4 of festival: 18th of the 7th month (29:25) מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libation and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Day 5 of festival: 19th of the 7th month (29:28) וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libation and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Day 6 of festival: 20th of the 7th month (29:31) [31]מִנְחָתָהּ וּנְסָכֶיהָ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Day 7 of festival: 21st of the 7th month (29:34) מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libation and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν
Shemini Atzeret – 22nd of the 7th month (29:38) וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ ומנחתה ונסכיה מנחתם ונסכיהם
and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libation and its (f.) grain offering and its (f.) libations their (grain) offerings and their libations αἱ θυσίαι αὐτῶν καὶ αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν

Chart 2 – The Festival Burnt-Offering Meal Plan

Festival Meat Grain Drink
Shabbat 2 lambs in their first year[32] 210 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil Its libation (unspecified)
Rosh Chodesh (New Moon) 2 Bulls 310 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per bull 12 hin (wine) per bull
1 Ram 210 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per ram[33] 13 hin (wine) per ram
7 lambs in their first year 110 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per lamb 14 hin wine per sheep
15th – 21st of the first month (Matzot) 2 Bulls 310 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per bull ?[34]
1 Ram 210 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per ram  
7 lambs in their first year 110 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per lamb  
Bikkurim (no date) 2 Bulls 310 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per bull ?
1 Ram 210 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per ram  
7 lambs in their first year 110 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per lamb  
1st of the 7th month 1 Bull 310 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per bull ?
1 Ram 210 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per ram  
7 lambs in their first year 110 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per lamb  
10th of the 7th month 1 Bull 310 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per bull ?
1 Ram 210 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per ram  
7 lambs in their first year 110 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per lamb  
7-day Festival in the 7th month 15th 14 bulls 2 rams (per day) 14 lambs in their first year (per day) 310 [an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per bull; 210[an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per ram; 110[an ephah] of choice flour mixed with oil per lamb (per day) ?
16th 13 bulls
17th 12 bulls
18th 11 bulls
19th 10 bulls
20th 9 bulls
21st 8 bulls
Shemini Atzeret (22nd of the 7th) 2 Bulls, 1 Ram, 7 lambs in their first year “Their (usual) grain offerings” “Their (usual) libations”

Published

July 5, 2018

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Last Updated

September 23, 2019

Footnotes

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Dr. Naphtali Meshel is a senior lecturer in Hebrew University’s Departments of Comparative Religion and Bible, from where he received his Ph.D.He did post-doctoral studies in India, studying Sanskrit literature on ritual, and is the author of  The “Grammar” of Sacrifice: A Generativist Study of the Israelite Sacrificial System (Oxford). ​