Study the Torah with Academic Scholarship

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Can We Pass Moral Judgment on Torah?

I don’t defend the Torah’s ostensibly immoral laws, but I do try to understand what motivated them.

Dr. Rabbi

Eliezer Finkelman



Blood Vengeance in Ancient Near Eastern Context

The Torah allows kin to take vengeance on a murderer; in cases of manslaughter, the killer is offered sanctuary at a refuge city. These laws highlight the struggle to limit clan justice in ancient Israel, a challenge found centuries earlier among the northern Amorites, as detailed in several letters to King Zimri-Lim of Mari.


Yigal Bloch



Retribution: Divine and Human

“When Your Enemy Falls Do Not Exult” (Prov 24:17)


Yuval Cherlow



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