Study the Torah with Academic Scholarship

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R. Samson Raphael Hirsch

German Orthodox rabbi, the intellectual founder of "Torah im Derech Eretz," 1808–1888

The Dictation Model of Torah Revelation


David Bigman



Dancing Erotically with the Golden Calf

And Moses’ Decision to Break the Tablets


David Ben-Gad HaCohen



Do Animals Feel Pain? Balaam’s Donkey vs. Descartes

In contrast to Descartes’ theory of animals as automatons, the Torah and rabbinic text express deep concern for animal suffering. One vivid example is the donkey’s rebuke of Balaam, “What have I done to you, that you have struck me?” (Num 22:28).


Yael Shemesh