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TheTorah.com’s mission is to make academic biblical scholarship accessible and engaging to readers from all backgrounds.

We solicit original essays on the Torah portion and holidays from academic scholars whose expertise includes history, archaeology, ancient Near Eastern studies, Egyptology, Semitic languages, textual criticism, and literary approaches.

These essays are reviewed and edited by our in-house scholars, to ensure the highest academic standards as well as maximum readability for the general audience. Thus far, TheTorah.com has published over 450 scholars and is the world’s leading educational platform for Torah study informed by contemporary scholarship.

Lisa Jacobs

Shamai Leibowitz

Prof.

William Morrow

Prof.

Jean-Louis Ska

Bill Friedlieb

Kevin Wolf

Dr.

Rebecca Scharbach Wollenberg

Dr. Rabbi

Laura Duhan-Kaplan

Prof.

J. Richard Middleton

Prof.

Malachi Haim Hacohen

Dr.

Eric J. Harvey

Prof.

Daniel Bodi

Prof.

Anne Katrine de Hemmer Gudme

Rabbi

Hanan Schlesinger

Prof.

Rebecca K. Esterson

Prof.

David Stern

Prof.

Reinhard Achenbach

Dr.

Anna Urowitz-Freudenstein

Prof.

Wayne Horowitz

Prof.

Eckart Otto

Dr.

Daniel H. Weiss

Prof.

J. Cornelis de Vos

Prof.

Ronnie Goldstein

Prof.

Jed Wyrick

Dr. Rabbi

Harvey Meirovich

Prof.

Jeremy M. Hutton

Prof.

Karen Strand Winslow

Prof.

Peter Enns

Prof.

Martin Goodman

Prof.

Stuart Miller

Dr.

Alex Sinclair

Dr.

Ronit Irshai

Prof.

Esther Brownsmith

Dr.

Matthew Susnow

Prof.

Esias E. Meyer

Dr.

Aubrey E. Buster

Dr.

Daniel O. McClellan

Dr.

Danilo Verde

Dr.

Søren Lorenzen

Rabbi

Daniel Kirzane

Dr.

Natia Mirotadze

Rabbi

Noam Shapiro

Rabbi

Avi Weiss

Dr.

Nissim Amzallag

Dr.

Kevin Mattison

Prof.

Hanna Tervanotko

Dr.

Brandon Hurlbert

Prof.

Elizabeth Backfish

Prof.

Steve Mason

Dr.

Rotem Avneri Meir

Prof.

Juan Manuel Tebes

Prof.

Katell Berthelot

Dr.

Rosanne Liebermann

Dr.

Nava Panitz-Cohen

Prof.

Mark G. Brett

Prof.

Hyun Chul Paul Kim

Prof.

Takayoshi M. Oshima

Prof.

Howard B. Rock

Dr.

Joseph Ryan Kelly

Prof.

Robert S. Kawashima

Dr.

Gad Barnea

Prof.

Yitzhak (Itzik) Peleg

Rabbi

Steven Bob

Prof.

Nehama Aschkenasy

Prof.

Raymond F. Person

Rabbi

Shawn Ruby

Prof.

Melissa Ramos

Prof.

Adi Ophir

Dr.

Sabine Kleiman

Prof.

C. L. Crouch

Prof.

Carol A. Newsom

Dr.

Assaf Kleiman

Prof.

Dan’el Kahn

Dr.

Yigal Bloch

Dr.

Shlomi Efrati

Dr.

Erica Lee Martin

Dr.

Sarah Schwartz

Prof.

David Goldenberg

Prof.

Sara Offenberg

Dr. Rabbi

Michael C. Hilton

Dr.

Andrew Rehfeld

Dr.

Attila Marossy

Prof.

Jennie Ebeling

Dr.

Nicole L. Tilford

Dr.

Emmanuel Bloch

Ophir Yarden

Prof.

Gary A. Anderson

Dr.

Sarah Schulz

Dr. Rabbi

Avital Hochstein

Prof. Rabbi

Yehoyada Amir

Prof. Rabbi

Yossi Turner

Prof.

Jean-Pierre Sonnet

Prof.

Stefan Schorch

Prof.

Mordechai Cogan

Rabbi

Rick Jacobs

Rabbi

Yoni Rosensweig

Dr. Rabbi

Haviva Ner-David

Dr. Rabbi

Deborah Waxman

Prof. Rabbi

David Golinkin

Dr. Rabbi

Adam Mintz

Dr. Rabbi

Shmuly Yanklowitz

Dr. Rabbi

Bradley Shavit Artson

Dr.

Caryn Tamber-Rosenau

Dr.

Alexandria Frisch

Dr.

Tina M. Sherman

Avram Friedman

Dr.

Ruth Fidler

Prof.

Patricia D. Ahearne-Kroll

Prof.

Daniel R. Schwartz

Prof.

Meira Z. Kensky

Prof.

Erin D. Darby

Dr. Rabbi

Natan Ophir (Offenbacher)

Dr.

Stephen Germany

Rabbi

Nolan Lebovitz

Prof.

Diana Edelman

Prof.

Tammi J. Schneider

Prof. Rev.

Wil Gafney

Prof.

Susanne Scholz

Prof.

Carol Bakhos

Prof.

David M. Carr

Dr.

Dafna Langgut

Prof.

Meghan Henning

Dr. Rabbi

Shai Held

Prof.

Andrew D. Gross

Dr.

Anna Angelini

Dr. Rabbi

David Resnick

Prof.

Sandra L. Richter

Prof.

Reinhard G. Kratz

Dr.

Naama Yahalom-Mack

Prof.

Bernard M. Levinson

Nurit Feig

Prof. Rabbi

Arthur Green

Prof.

James Kugel

Dr.

Harry Freedman

Prof.

Molly M. Zahn

Prof.

Joseph Lam

Rabbi

Peretz Rodman

Dr.

Jaeyoung Jeon

Prof.

Brent A. Strawn

Prof.

Nathan MacDonald

Rachel Friedman

Prof.

Jonathan Rabinowitz

Prof.

Emily Colbert Cairns

Dr.

Felix Wiedemann

Prof. Rabbi

Phil Lieberman

Dr.

Joseph Weinstein

Dr.

Paula Wapnish Hesse

Prof.

Deirdre Fulton

Prof.

Konrad Schmid

Prof.

Christoph Berner

Prof.

Meira Polliack

Prof.

Tamás Visi

Prof.

Safwat Marzouk

Dr.

Mordecai David Rosen

Dr.

Mahri Leonard-Fleckman

Prof.

George Savran

Dr. Rabbi

Marcus Mordecai Schwartz

Prof. Rabbi

Reuven Firestone

Prof.

Christoph Levin

Prof.

John Day

Rabbi

Ron Stern

Prof.

Jason Radine

Dr.

Fran Snyder

Prof. Rabbi

Tzvee Zahavy

Prof.

Raymond P. Scheindlin

Prof.

Karel van der Toorn

Prof.

Robert Eisen

Dr.

Naama Golan

Dr.

Abdulla Galadari

Prof.

Laura Quick

Dr.

Adam L. Bean

Dr.

Ariel Kopilovitz

Prof.

Steven Nadler

Prof.

Edward Breuer

Prof.

John Barton

Prof.

Cynthia Chapman

Dr.

Anathea Portier-Young

Prof.

Matthias Henze

Prof.

Martha Himmelfarb

Prof.

John J. Collins

Prof.

Geoffrey Khan

Dr. Rabbi

Zvi Ron

Dr.

Elaine T. James

Dr.

Yael Landman

Prof.

Eyal Ben-Eliyahu

Prof.

Steven Fine

Dr.

Sandra Jacobs

Dr.

Shlomit Bechar

Rabbi

Daniel Levine

Dr.

Andrew Tobolowsky

Prof.

Amy-Jill Levine

Noam Cohen

Dr.

Philip Yoo

Grace Leake

Dr.

Clinton Bailey

Prof.

Oded Borowski

Dr.

Joachim Yeshaya

Prof.

Warren Zev Harvey

Dr.

Sarah Shectman

Dr.

Orr Scharf

Prof.

Kenneth Seeskin

Evie Gassner

Prof.

Rami Arav

Prof.

Sidnie White Crawford

Dr.

Ido Koch

Prof.

Yosef Garfinkel

Dr.

Madeleine Mumcuoglu

Dr.

Yonatan Miller

Prof.

Alexander Rofé

Dr.

Angela Roskop Erisman

Dr.

Raz Kletter

Dr.

Meir Ben-Shahar

Prof.

Omri Lernau, M.D.

Prof.

Ophir Münz-Manor

Dr.

Menachem Katz

Dr.

Marjorie Lehman

Dr.

Yonatan Feintuch

Dr.

Ellen Birnbaum

Prof.

Lawrence H. Schiffman

Noam Zion

Prof.

Hanna Liss

Prof.

James W. Watts

Prof.

David P. Wright

Prof.

Charles H. Manekin

Prof.

Benjamin G. Wright III

Harvey N. Bock

Prof.

Sacha Stern

Prof.

Jonathan Jacobs

Dr.

Ilan Peled

Zvi Koenigsberg

Prof.

Ishay Rosen-Zvi

Dr.

Abraham J. Berkovitz

Dr. Rabbi

Shraga Bar-On

Prof.

Hagith Sivan

Dr.

Orit Avnery

Dr.

David Gillis

A. Avreich

Dr.

Eyal Baruch

Prof.

Steven Weitzman

Dr.

Gili Kugler

Prof.

Erez Ben-Yosef

Prof.

Susan Niditch

Dr.

Eran Viezel

Dr. Rabba

Lindsey Taylor-Guthartz

Dr.

Sarit Kattan Gribetz

Prof.

Eric Orlin

Dr.

Alan Flashman

Dr.

Gregg E. Gardner

Dr.

Hilary Lipka

Prof.

Carol Meyers

Dr.

Yedida Eisenstat

Dr.

Shayna Sheinfeld

Prof.

Jack M. Sasson

Prof.

Ada Taggar-Cohen

Prof.

Mark Leuchter

Dr.

Devorah Schoenfeld

Yoel S.

Rabbi

Moshe Reiss

Prof.

Daniel J. Lasker

Dr. Rabbi

Steven Sager

Dr.

Marc Herman

Dr.

Rachel P. Kreiter

Dr.

Jason Tron

Prof.

Everett Fox

Prof.

Albert I. Baumgarten

Dr.

Tzilla Eshel

Prof.

Aren Maeir

Dr.

David Ben-Gad HaCohen

Dr.

Baruch Alster

Dr.

Aryeh Amihay

Prof.

Yairah Amit

DovBear

Dr. Rabbi

David J. Zucker

Rabbi

Daniel M. Zucker

Dr.

Aviva Gottlieb Zornberg

Prof.

Zvi Zohar

Prof.

Ziony Zevit

Prof. Rabbi

Wendy Zierler

Dr. Rabbi

Tzemah Yoreh

Prof.

Azzan Yadin-Israel

Prof.

Jacob L. Wright

Rabbi

David Wolpe

Prof.

Lawrence M. Wills

Prof. Rabbi

Andrea L. Weiss

Rabbi

Uzi Weingarten

Prof.

Nili Wazana

Prof.

Chaim I. Waxman

Dr.

Barry Dov Walfish

Prof.

Meylekh (PV) Viswanath

Prof. Rabbi

Burton L. Visotzky

Prof.

Jacqueline Vayntrub

Dr.

Shani Tzoref

Dr.

Chaim Trachtman

Benyamim Tsedaka

Prof.

Emanuel Tov

Prof. Rabbi

Jeffrey Tigay

Sara Susswein Tesler

Prof.

Marvin A. Sweeney

Dr.

Shana Strauch-Schick

Dr.

Jonathan Stökl

Dr.

Gregg Stern

Dr.

Elsie R. Stern

Rabbi

David D. Steinberg

Prof. Rabbi

Daniel Sperber

Prof.

Benjamin D. Sommer

Dr. Rabbi

Norman Solomon

Dan Sofer

Dr.

Malka Z. Simkovich

Dr.

David Shyovitz

Prof.

Yael Shemesh

Dr.

Nadav Sharon

Prof.

Hava Shalom-Guy

Prof.

Michael Segal

Prof.

Shai Secunda

Dr.

Ethan Schwartz

Prof.

Baruch J. Schwartz

Prof.

Solomon Schimmel

Prof.

Michael L. Satlow

Dr. Hacham

Isaac S. D. Sassoon

Ben Sandler

Dr.

Seth Sanders

Tova Sacher

Dr.

Nili Samet

Dr.

Joel Yehudah Rutman

Prof. Rabbi

Jeffrey L. Rubenstein

Dr.

David Rothstein

Prof.

Tamar Ross

Dr.

Jordan D. Rosenblum

Dr. Rabbi

Jeremy Rosen

Dr.

Oded Rosenblum

Prof.

Thomas Römer

Prof.

Christopher A. Rollston

Prof.

Gary Rendsburg

Prof.

Adele Reinhartz

Prof.

Eyal Regev

Dr.

Laurie Pearce

Dr. Rabbi

Aaron Panken

Dr.

Tzvi Novick

Dr.

Tania Notarius

Prof.

Scott B. Noegel

Prof.

Vered Noam

Prof.

Hindy Najman

Dr. Rabbi

David Z. Moster

Parry Moshe

Dr. Rabbi

Jeremy S. Morrison

Prof.

Sara Milstein

Prof.

Eric M. Meyers

Dr.

Ari Mermelstein

Dr.

Naphtali Meshel

Prof.

Yitzhak Y. Melamed

Prof. Rabbi

Dalia Marx

Dr. Rabbi

Michael Marmur

Tomer Rami Mangoubi

Prof. Rabbi

Jonathan W. Malino

Prof. Rabbi

Jonathan Magonet

Prof. Rabbi

Shaul Magid

Prof. Rabbi

Marty Lockshin

Dr.

Atar Livneh

Prof. Rabbi

Laura Lieber

Shawn Joe Lichaa

Prof.

B. Barry Levy

Dr.

Ely Levine

Rabbi

David Levin-Kruss

Prof. Rabbi

Baruch A. Levine

Prof.

Yigal Levin

Prof.

Jon D. Levenson

Prof.

Alan T. Levenson

Dr.

Adriane Leveen

Dr.

Eve Levavi Feinstein

Dr.

Richard Lederman

Dr. Rabbi

Samuel Lebens

Dr.

Moshe Lavee

Dr.

David Lambert

Dr. Rabbi

Binyamin (Benny) Lau

Prof.

​Francis Landy

Rabbi

Daniel Landes

Dr. Rabbi

Joshua Kulp

Dr. Rabbi

Amit Kula

Prof.

Haim (Howard) Kreisel

Hartley Koschitzky

Dr.

Naomi Koltun-Fromm

Dr. Rabbi

Eugene Korn

Shira Hecht-Koller

Prof.

Aaron Koller

Prof.

Israel Knohl

Rabbi

Shmuel Klitsner

Judy Klitsner

Prof.

Itamar Kislev

Prof. Rabbi

Reuven Kimelman

Dr. Rabbi

Yishai Kiel

Prof.

Menachem Kellner

Dr.

Jill (Citron) Katz

Dr.

Hayah Katz

Prof.

Ben-Zion Katz M.D.

Prof.

Tamar Kamionkowski

Prof.

Joel Kaminsky

Prof.

Isaac Kalimi

Dr. Rabbi

Seth (Avi) Kadish

Elie Jesner

Dr.

Alex P. Jassen

Prof.

Sara Japhet

Dr.

Mark Janzen

Dr.

Daniel Jackson

Prof.

Michael M. Homan

Prof.

Shalom E. Holtz

Prof.

Yair Hoffman

Prof. Rabbi

Lawrence A. Hoffman

Dr. Rabbi

Jeff Hoffman

Rabbi

Evan Hoffman

Dr. Rabbi

Richard Hidary

Prof.

Geoffrey Herman

Prof.

Ronald Hendel

Prof.

Samuel Heilman

Rabbi

Herzl Hefter

Prof.

Joel Hecker

Dr.

Rachel Havrelock

Prof. Rabbi

Judith Hauptman

Dr.

Tova Hartman

Yossi Klein-Halevi

Prof. Rabbi

Robert Harris

Prof.

Jacob Klein

Dr.

Alison L. Joseph

Dr. Rabbi

Michael Harris

Dr.

David Gurevich

Rabbi

Zvi Grumet

Dr. Rabbi

Lawrence Grossman

Prof.

Jonathan Grossman

Rabbi

Eric Grossman

Prof.

Edward L. Greenstein

Prof.

Leonard Greenspoon

Prof.

Frederick E. Greenspahn

Dr.

Aaron Greener

Dr. Rabbi

Irving (Yitz) Greenberg

Dr.

Deena Grant

Naomi Graetz

Dr.

Isaac Gottlieb

Dr. Rabbi

Daniel Gordis

Dr.

Elaine Goodfriend

Ari L. Goldman

Dr.

Shira Golani

Dr. Rabbi

Samuel Z. Glaser

Dr.

Abigail Gillman

Dr.

David Glatt-Gilad

Rabbi

Yehudah Gilad

Shai Alleson-Gerberg

Prof.

Deborah Levine Gera

Prof. Rabbi

Stephen A. Geller

Dr.

Kristine Henriksen Garroway

Prof. Rabbi

Joshua Garroway

Dr. Rabbi

Stephen Garfinkel

Prof.

Zev Garber

Dr.

Tova Ganzel

Dr.

Uri Gabbay

Dr.

Jason Gaines

Dr.

Serge Frolov

Prof.

Richard Elliott Friedman

Dr. Rabbi

David M. Freidenreich

Dr.

Albert D. Friedberg

Dr.

Lisbeth S. Fried

Dr.

Norma Franklin

Prof. Rabbi

David Frankel

Prof.

Steven Fraade

Prof. Rabbi

Michael V. Fox

Prof.

Charlotte Elisheva Fonrobert

Prof.

Sam Fleischacker

Mitchell First

Prof.

Israel Finkelstein

Dr. Rabbi

Eliezer Finkelman

Dr.

Elad Filler

Dr.

Liane Feldman

Dr.

Yitzhaq Feder

Prof.

Avraham (Avi) Faust

Oren Fass M.D.

Dr. Rabbi

Zev Farber

Dr.

David A. Falk

Prof. Rabbi

Alexander Even-Chen

Prof. Rabbi

Tamara Cohn Eskenazi

Dr.

Esther Eshel

Dr. Rabbi

Amy Eilberg

Prof.

Raanan Eichler

Prof.

Carl S. Ehrlich

Dr.

Cynthia Edenburg

Zachi Dvira

Prof.

Shawna Dolansky

Prof.

Devorah Dimant

Prof.

James A. Diamond

Prof.

Idan Dershowitz

Prof.

Aaron Demsky

Dr.

Avi Dentelski

Dr.

Daniel Davies

Dr.

Guy Darshan

Dr.

Noga Ayali-Darshan

Dr.

Amy Cooper Robertson

Prof.

Alan Cooper

Dr.

Yehudah Cohn

Prof. Rabbi

Naftali S. Cohn

Prof. Rabbi

Shaye J. D. Cohen

Rabbi

Shoshana Cohen

Prof. Rabbi

Michael Chernick

Rabbi

Yuval Cherlow

Dr.

Simeon Chavel

Dr.

Michael Carasik

Dr. Rabbi

Nathan Lopes Cardozo

Rabbi

Lee Buckman

Dr.

Erica Brown

Prof.

Marc Zvi Brettler

Dr.

Marian Broida

Prof.

Athalya Brenner-Idan

Dr. Rabbi

Yehuda Brandes

Dr.

Miryam Brand

Prof. Rabbi

David R. Blumenthal

Dr.

Elizabeth Bloch-Smith

Rabbi

Yoseif Bloch

Prof.

René Bloch

Dr. Rabbi

Yoel Bin-Nun

Rabbi

David Bigman

Dr.

David Bernat

Prof.

Adele Berlin

Prof.

Ehud Ben-Zvi

Prof.

Zvi Ben-Dor Benite

Prof.

Jonathan Ben-Dov

Dr.

Shirly Ben-Dor Evian

Prof.

David Ben-Shlomo

Dr.

Steven Bayme

Prof. Rabbi

Herbert Basser

Dr.

Amitai Baruchi-Unna

Prof. Rabbi

Pamela Barmash

Dr.

Gabriel Barkay

Prof.

Elinoar Bareket

Prof.

Joel Baden

David Bar-Cohn

Dr.

Yael Avrahami

Prof.

Michael Avioz

Prof.

Jan Assmann

Dr.

Flora Brooke Anthony

Dr. Rabbi

Marc D. Angel

Dr. Rabbi

Wendy Love Anderson

Dr. Rabbi

Elisha Ancselovits

Rabbi

David Almog

Prof.

Mika Ahuvia

Prof.

Yonatan Adler

Prof. Rabbi

Rachel Adler

Prof. Rabbi

Rachel Adelman

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